JOURNAL OF OTOLOGY
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Chinese Journal of Otology
JOURNAL OF OTOLOGY
Journal of Otology
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Department of Otolaryngology, Head & Neck Surgery, Chinese PLA General Hospital
Chinese PLA General Hospital
2019, 14(3) Published: 15 September 2019
Protein biomarkers of neural system
Fatemeh Ghanavatinejad a,Zahra Pourteymour Fard Tabrizi a,Shadi Omidghaemi a,Esmaeel Sharififi b, Simon Geir M?ller c, d,Mohammad-Saeid Jami a, e, *
JOURNAL OF OTOLOGY, 2019, 14(3): 77-88
The utilization of biomarkers for in vivo and in vitro research is growing rapidly. This is mainly due to the
enormous potential of biomarkers in evaluating molecular and cellular abnormalities in cell models and
in tissue, and evaluating drug responses and the effectiveness of therapeutic intervention strategies.
An important way to analyze the development of the human body is to assess molecular markers in
embryonic specialized cells, which include the ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm. Neuronal devel
opment is controlled through the gene networks in the neural crest and neural tube, both components of
the ectoderm. The neural crest differentiates into several different tissues including, but not limited to,
the peripheral nervous system, enteric nervous system, melanocyte, and the dental pulp. The neural tube
eventually converts to the central nervous system.
This review provides an overview of the differentiation of the ectoderm to a fully functioning nervous
system, focusing on molecular biomarkers that emerge at each stage of the cellular specialization from
multipotent stem cells to completely differentiated cells. Particularly, the otic placode is the origin of
most of the inner ear cell types such as neurons, sensory hair cells, and supporting cells. During the
development, different auditory cell types can be distinguished by the expression of the neurogenin
differentiation factor1 (Neuro D1), Brn3a, and transcription factor GATA3. However, the mature auditory
neurons express other markers including bIII tubulin, the vesicular glutamate transporter (VGLUT1), the
tyrosine receptor kinase B and C (Trk B, C), BDNF, neurotrophin 3 (NT3), Calretinin, etc.
Vestibular evoked myogenic potentials in patients with diabetes mellitus
JOURNAL OF OTOLOGY, 2019, 14(3): 89-93
Although the exact mechanism and most involved region of the vestibular system have not yet been fully clarified, vestibular dysfunction has been demonstrated in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). Vestibular evoked myogenic potential (VEMP) is a short latency electromyographic response to sound or vibration stimuli that may reflect otolith organ or related reflex functions. Since its first description in 1992, VEMP has become a significant part of the vestibular test battery as an objective measurement tool. In diabetic patients, VEMP responses have been studied in order to determine any otolith organ or related reflex dysfunctions. Here, we review the literature with regard to VEMP findings representing any peripheral vestibular end-organ dysfunction in patients with DM. Distinctive vestibular end-organ impairments seem to be demonstrated in patients with DM either with or without DNP via objective vestibular testing tools including VEMP recordings according to relevant studies. However, further studies with larger sample sizes are required to reveal the more definitive findings of VEMP recordings regarding the vestibular pathologies in patients with DM.
Review on cochlear implant electrode array tip fold-over and scalar deviation
Anandhan Dhanasingh, Claude Jolly
JOURNAL OF OTOLOGY, 2019, 14(3): 94-100
Objective: Determine the occurrence rate of cochlear implant (CI) electrode tip fold-over and electrode scalar deviation as reported in patient cases with different commercial electrode types.
Data-sources: PubMed search for identifying peer-reviewed articles published till 2018 on CI electrode tip fold-over and scalar deviation. Key-words for searching were “Cochlear electrode tip fold-over”, “Cochlear electrode scalar position” and “Cochlear electrode scalar location”.
Articles-selection: Only if electrode related issues were investigated in patient cases. 38 articles met the inclusion-criteria.
Results: 13 articles on electrode tip fold-over issue covering 3177 implanted ears, out of which 50 ears were identified with electrode tip fold-over with an occurrence rate of 1.57%. Out of 50 ears, 43 were implanted with pre-curved electrodes and the remaining 7 with lateral-wall electrodes. One article reported on both tip fold-over and scalar deviation. 26 articles reported on the electrode scalar deviation covering an overall number of 2046 ears out of which, 458 were identified with electrode scalar deviation at a rate of 22.38%. After removing the studies that did not report on the number of electrodes per electrode type, it was 1324 ears implanted with pre-curved electrode and 507 ears with lateral-wall electrode. Out of 1324 pre-curved electrode implanted ears, 424 were reported with scalar deviation making an occurrence rate of 32%. Out of 507 lateral-wall electrode implanted ears, 43 were associated with scalar deviation at an occurrence rate of 6.7%.
Conclusion: This literature review revealing the fact of higher rate of electrode insertion trauma associated with pre-curved electrode type irrespective of CI brand is one step closer to obsolete it from the clinical practice in the interest of patient's cochlear health.
Balloon dilation of Eustachian tube combined with tympanostomy tube insertion and middle ear pressure equalization therapy for recurrent secretory otitis media
Gendi Yin, Jingqian Tan, Peng Li
JOURNAL OF OTOLOGY, 2019, 14(3): 101-105
Objective:To report outcomes of balloon dilation Eustachian tuboplasty combined with tympanostomy tube insertion and middle ear pressure equalization therapy in treatment of recurrent secretory otitis media.
Methods: Fifty one patients with recurrent secretory otitis media (62 ears) underwent balloon dilation of Eustachian tube and tympanic tube insertion under general anesthesia, followed by long term middle ear pressure equalization therapies. The Eustachian tube score (ETS) and Eustachian tube function questionnaire (ETDQ-7) were used for pre- and postoperative (up to 12 months) evaluation of Eustachian tube functions.
Results: The mean ETS score was 2.34 ± 0.97 preoperatively, and 6.17 ± 1.54, 7.23 ± 1.62, 8.24 ± 1.97, and 7.63 ± 1.86 at 1, 3, 6 and 12 months postoperatively, respectively (P < 0.05). The ETDQ-7 score was 4.82 ± 1.07 preoperatively, and 2.20 ± 0.54, 2.32 ± 0.68, 2.53 ± 0.79, and 2.67 ± 0.76 at 1, 3, 6 and 12 months postoperatively, respectively (P < 0.05).
Conclusion: Balloon dilation of Eustachian tube combined with tympanostomy and catheterization resulted in significant improvement of subjective symptoms and objective evaluation of Eustachian tube functions in most patients with recurrent secretory otitis media, as indicated by the ETS and ETDQ-7 scores, demonstrating high levels of efficacy and patient satisfaction.
Association of asymptomatic otitis media with effusion in patients with adenoid hypertrophy
Vadisha Bhat, Ivan Paraekulam Mani, Rajeshwary Aroor, Marina Saldanha, M.K. Goutham, Deepika Pratap
JOURNAL OF OTOLOGY, 2019, 14(3): 106-110
Objective: Clinical symptoms of otitis media with effusion are rarely brought forward to the guardians of young children who the disease is most prevalent in. This often leads to poor scholastic performances and difficult social interactions. The objective of this study was to identify asymptomatic cases of otitis media with effusion present in individuals with adenoid hypertrophy.
Material and Methods: In a cross sectional study advocated in Justice K.S.Hegde Hospital, Karnataka India we evaluated one hundred patients above the age of three from August 2016 to December 2017. Candidates who presented with an adenoid nasopharyngeal ratio of more than 0.5 were selected for the study. Individuals who complained of otological symptoms were not considered for the study. Patients cleared of other pathological otological conditions were underwent audiological evaluation with pure tone audiometry and tympanometry for evaluating the middle ear status and hearing loss.
Results: The study showed a total of 36% of patients evaluated presented with asymptomatic otitis media with effusion. In candidates who presented with a bilateral B tympanogram, 40% had significant conductive hearing loss of more than 25dB.
Conclusion: An objective test such as impedance audiometry in all patients with adenoid hypertrophy would aid in the diagnosis of fluid in the middle ear, so that timely intervention can be done and possible complications be averted.
Probable benign paroxysmal positional vertigo, spontaneously resolved: Incidence in medical practice, patients’ characteristics and the natural course
M.G. Alvarez-Morujo de Sande a, R. Gonzalez-Aguado b, G. Guerra-Jimenez c, E. Domenech-Vadillo d, H. Galera-Ruiz e, E. Figuerola-Massana d, A. Ramos-Macías c, C. Morales-Angulo b, A.J. Martín-Mat
JOURNAL OF OTOLOGY, 2019, 14(3): 111-116
Background: Probable benign paroxysmal positional vertigo, spontaneously resolved (pBPPVsr), is a variant of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) in which there is no observable nystagmus and no vertigo with any positional maneuver.
Objectives: To calculate the incidence pBPPVsr, compare the characteristics of the patients with pBPPVsr and BPPV not spontaneously resolved and describe the spontaneous resolution in the natural course of BPPV.
Methods: Multicenter prospective descriptive study. During a one-year period, all patients with suspected BPPV that presented to the Neurotology Units of five participating centers were recruited. The incidence of pBPPVsr was calculated as a percentage of the total number of patients with BPPV. The prevalence of several variables was compared between pBPPVsr and BPPV not spontaneously resolved. The timing of spontaneous resolution was estimated using Kaplan-Meier curves.
Results: 457 patients met the inclusion criteria. The incidence of pBPPVsr was 33.5%. It was significantly higher in males, in patients with normal bone mass and in patients who were not taking sulpiride. A rate of 18% of spontaneous resolution after the first month and 51% after the first year was found. This percentage did not change in a significant way after this moment. The curves for males, patients under 50 and patients with normal blood pressure decreased significantly faster.
Conclusions: In our serie, BPPV spontaneously resolved in half of the patients with BPPV during the first year. This seemed to occur more commonly in males and could have been hindered by sulpiride intake, osteoporosis, advanced age and high blood pressure.
A comparative study between haemocoagulase and adrenaline in type 1 tympanoplasty
Nishad Chemmangath a, Rajeshwary Aroor b, Deepika Pratap b, *, Vadisha Bhat b
JOURNAL OF OTOLOGY, 2019, 14(3): 117-120
Introduction: Haemostasis is a critical component of ear surgeries, which can be achieved by topical methods including simple manual pressure with gauze or cotton balls soaked with adrenaline, administration of haemostatic agents or vasoconstrictive materials.
Objective: To compare efficacy of haemocoagulase and adrenaline in attaining middle ear haemostasis in type - 1 tympanoplasty with or without cortical mastoidectomy. To study the effect of haemocoagulase in middle ear.
Materials and method: This is a prospective comparative study conducted in a tertiary care hospital from January 2013 to June 2014. Patients undergoing type 1 tympanoplasty with or without cortical mastoidectomy were divided into two groups. In group A (50 cases), cotton balls soaked in 2 ml Haemocoagulase was used and in group B (50 cases) cotton balls soaked in 2 ml Adrenaline (1:1000 dilution) was used for middle ear haemostasis. The efficacy of haemocoagulase and adrenaline was compared.
Results: The mean number of cotton balls used in haemocoagulase group in cases with congested middle ear mucosa was more than those used in the adrenaline group. Duration of surgery was more in haemocoagulase group (65 min) with congested mucosa, compared to adrenaline group (50 min). The mean blood pressure was significantly higher in adrenaline group compared to haemocoagulase group. Postoperative hearing improvement in both groups showed no significant difference with p value 0.694.
Conclusions: Adrenaline is a better middle ear haemostatic than haemocoagulase. However, haemocoagulase can safely be used in patients with hypertension.
JOURNAL OF OTOLOGY
12th Conference of the Asian Society of Mitochondrial Research and Medicine
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